Global economic uncertainty as a result of COVID-19 will impact house purchases. On 30 April 2020, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ) announced the removal of mortgage loan-to-value ratio (LVR) restrictions for 12 months. The decision was made to ensure LVR restrictions did not have an undue impact on borrowers or lenders as part of the mortgage deferral scheme implemented in response to the economic downturn caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article we discuss what the changes are and the likely impact they will have.
LVR: What Does It Mean?
LVR is the amount of loan compared to the value of your property. For example, if the property is worth $500,000 and you have a deposit of $100,000, the LVR will be 80 percent meaning the loan cannot be higher than $400,000. LVR restrictions were introduced by the RBNZ in October 2013, as it was concerned about the rate at which house prices were increasing and the potential risk that it posed to the financial system and the broader economy. These restrictions required banks to restrict new residential mortgage lending at LVRs over 80 percent and allowing no more than 20 percent of its total new lending in this category. This placed restrictions on New Zealand banks and the amount of low deposit lending they could do.
If you were thinking about purchasing a home and had a deposit of less than 20 percent of the home’s value, your home loan application would have been affected by the LVR restrictions. Your application would have had to go through a number of assessments by the bank in order to determine whether it could lend you money or not. If successful, borrowers would face an additional fee called a low equity margin. This resulted in a percentage added to your interest rate that remained there until your loan reduced to the 80 percent threshold. These restrictions certainly did not make it easy for first home buyers and many felt they had been locked out of the property market. However, such restrictions clearly did not deter them. In December 2019 the amount advanced on mortgages was $6.5 billion, with $1.2 billion being advanced to first home buyers, giving this group its highest share since August 2014 (at 18.5%).
The announcement from the RBNZ to remove LVR restrictions was a strategic one to bolster the economy and increase demand for property as New Zealand comes out of lockdown, with this decision to be revaluated in 12 months. The removal of restrictions on the amount of money that can be lent to high-LVR borrowers will not only have an impact on new home buyers, but also investment property buyers and those who are already current homeowners.
First Home Buyers
If you have been looking at buying your first home for some time but have been put off by the LVR restrictions, the announcement may have come as a breath of fresh air to you. While it is likely that low equity margin rates may still be applicable, as long as you are credit worthy with income and meet the bank’s lending criteria, you could very well be on your way to buying your first home. The removal of LVRs will not only mean it will now be easier for you to obtain lending, it will also mean that you will now have the opportunity to ‘shop around’ and choose a bank that best suits your circumstances. Up until now, you may only have been able to get a pre-approval from your current bank, as most banks have been reluctant to give pre-approvals to non-bank clients in case their existing clients could not be approved. This should no longer be the case and an opportunity is there to be taken advantage of.
Investment Property Buyers
Due to the higher risks associated with these types of loans, the current policy classifies investor loans as high-LVR if they are more than 70 percent of the property’s value. These high-LVR loans could make up no more than 5 percent of a bank’s total new lending in this category. It is likely that this percentage will increase over time, but given the period of uncertainty we are in, it is hard to gauge when this will occur and what the removal of LVR restrictions will truly look like for investment property buyers.
The impact on current homeowners is minimal. However, this may make it easier to apply for home loan top ups, especially if you were already close to the 80 percent threshold. It may also mean if you have suffered a loss of income or your property value has decreased to mean your mortgage is now over 80 percent, it may not be as dire for you or the bank as it was before.
The announcement from the RBNZ to remove LVR restrictions was certainly welcomed, especially as the implications of Covid-19 from a financial point of view continue to be negatively felt throughout the country. It will certainly be interesting to see what occurs over the next 12 months as the impact of Covid-19 becomes clearer and whether LVR restrictions will be reinstated.
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